The United Nations declared in 2003 to be World Day Against Trafficking In Persons, 30 July. So that awareness can be created among the people regarding promotion and protection of rights of people suffering from human trafficking. Human trafficking has emerged as a serious problem across the world. It is a crime in which people are bought and sold for their exploitation. Human trafficking is a hate crime that flourishes due to inequality, instability and conflict. Human traffickers take advantage of human hopes and aspirations. They ambush the weak and then take away their fundamental rights. Children and youth, migrants and refugees are particularly vulnerable. Women and girls are repeatedly victimized. They are sexually exploited, forced into prostitution, sex slavery, forced into marriages. There is also a horrific trade in human organs. Human trafficking has many forms and goes beyond borders.
Smugglers often have no fear of punishment as this crime is not given enough attention. This attitude needs to be changed. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons is the first of its kind to provide a comprehensive global assessment of human trafficking. This includes data from 155 countries—according to the report, sexual abuse is the most common form of human trafficking (79%). The victims of sexual abuse are mainly women and girls. Surprisingly, 30% of the countries that provide information on the gender of traffickers have the highest proportion of female traffickers. In some areas it is women who traffic in women and girls. Human trafficking (concept photo – social media) The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labor (18%). Around 20% of the victims of trafficking worldwide are children. In some parts of Africa and the Mekong region (up to 100% in some parts of West Africa) children are trafficked. There is a general opinion that people are taken from one country to another by smuggling but most of the cases of exploitation are found close to home.
According to statistics, inland or domestic trafficking is the major form of human trafficking. Statistics – Around 25 million adults and children are victims of human trafficking for labor and sex crimes in the world. The 2019 report highlights the national nature of trafficking, according to which in 60% of cases victims are trafficked within the country rather than being taken outside the borders of their country. The problem of domestic smuggling is more prevalent in all regions of the world except in Western and Central Europe, the Middle East and some East Asian countries. – According to statistics from the International Labor Organization, trafficking for sexual harassment is most likely to be carried out outside the country’s borders, while in the case of forced labor, people are usually trafficked within their own countries – women and girls are most vulnerable Huh. 90% of women and girls are trafficked for sexual exploitation. According to the information, 85% of human trafficking in South Asia is done for forced labour. The most affected states in India are West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Assam. Causes of human trafficking – Poverty and illiteracy, bonded labour, sex trade, social inequality, regional gender imbalance, longing for a better life, concern for social security, trafficking of girls in metropolitan cities for domestic work, trafficking of children for child pornography, sex Women being victims of exploitation (Photo- Social Media) Human trafficking in India Human trafficking, which is embarrassing to humanity, is a stigma on the forehead of civilized society and the US State Department has been talking about human trafficking in India in the past. In the report ‘Trafficking in Persons Report-2020’, India was placed in Tier-2 category like last year.
According to the report, the government made efforts to eradicate human trafficking in 2019 but the minimum standards related to preventing it could not be achieved. According to the report, India still remains an important destination on the map of world human trafficking. This US State Department report said that Maoist groups forcibly recruited children under the age of 12 in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand etc. to handle weapons and IEDs and also used them as human shields. Not only this, women and girls belonging to Maoist groups were also subjected to sexual violence in Maoist camps. Even in Jammu and Kashmir, armed groups have been continuously recruiting and using juveniles below the age of 14 to carry out anti-government activities. Effect of Corona Period During the Corona transition period, the situation regarding human trafficking has worsened. Incidents of human trafficking from across the border have also increased these days, in view of which an alert has been issued by the BSF recently to prevent such incidents. BSF officials say smugglers have focused on innovative ways to bring poor and needy people from across the border with the allure of jobs in Kolkata, Guwahati, some cities in Northeast India and cities like Delhi and Mumbai.
In fact, due to the loss of employment during the Corona transition period, efforts are being made to lure people through cross-border smuggling. Human trafficking is also becoming active in flood-affected areas like Assam, Bihar etc. According to the report of the National Human Rights Commission, the Ministry of Women and Child Development received 27 lakh complaints through phone calls during the pandemic, of which 1.92 lakh cases Action was taken. In these actions, about 32,700 were of human trafficking. Apart from this, there were cases of child marriage, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, forced begging and cyber crimes. The NHRC, in its earlier advisory, had directed states to record details of migrants going out of villages and prevent smuggling cases. Human Trafficking (Concept Photo – Social Media) 2019 NCRB Report Data According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), 76% of all human trafficking in India in the last decade is girls and women. The business of human trafficking is a way to earn huge profits in a short time. Due to this greed, it is becoming a serious problem for the society. Human trafficking is considered the third largest organized crime in the world after the smuggling of drugs and weapons. In Asia, India is considered a stronghold of such crimes. According to the United Nations, trafficking is the act of intimidating, using force, or wrongful recruitment, transportation or asylum.
From prostitution to bonded labor, forced marriage, domestic labor, organ trade, women, children and men are bought and sold all over the world and if we look at the statistics, about 80 percent of human trafficking is for sex while 20 per cent for bonded labor or other purposes. According to the NCRB, human trafficking is the second largest crime in India in terms of trafficking. According to some statistics, it has increased manifold in the last decade alone. According to government figures, a child goes missing every eight minutes in the country. There is a network of human traffickers in almost every state. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh are considered the main sources and strongholds of human trafficking. More than 70 percent of human trafficking cases are from these states, where girls are also bought and sold for red light areas. A total of 2260 cases of human trafficking were registered while the total number of cases in 2018 was 2278. This meant a decline of about 0.8 percent. A total of 6616 people were victims of human trafficking, out of which 2914 were children and 3702 were youth. Apart from this, 6571 people were victims of human trafficking. was freed from the clutches of human trafficking. Accordingly, 5128 people of 2260 cases were arrested. India’s rising steps against human trafficking The central government has decided to take steps like cracking down on human traffickers and rehabilitation for the victims.
The Ministry of Women and Child Development has made public the draft of the Trafficking in Human (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021. The new bill comes after a long process of amendment after the Human Trafficking Bill 2018. The Human Trafficking Bill 2018 was approved after a heated debate in the Lok Sabha, but could not be passed in the Rajya Sabha and in 2019, the first term of the Modi government ended, whose bill also expired. Now the much-awaited new draft bill proposes that any person committing the offense of “trafficking of persons” shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall not exceed one lakh rupees. fine may also be imposed. The National Investigation Agency will act as the national investigative and coordinating agency responsible for the prevention and combat of human trafficking. Once a law is enacted, the Center will notify and set up a National Anti-Human Trafficking Committee to implement all the provisions of this law. Officers of all the ministries will be included in this committee, in which the Home Secretary will be the chairman and the secretary of the Ministry of Women and Child Development will be the co-chair. Anti-human trafficking committees will also be formed at the state and district level to implement the law.
Human Trafficking in India (Design Photo – Social Media) Human trafficking in Jharkhand is being dealt with promptly. A few days ago, the Chief Minister of the state Hemant Soren had directed the Deputy Commissioners of all the districts to take strict action against human traffickers. About 20 women from Kanpur, Unnao and other states of Uttar Pradesh were sent by human traffickers to Gulf countries like Oman, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait etc. on the pretext of job and better salary. The women were harassed by the operator of the Servant Agency where they reached the office in Oman. Apart from this, three people were arrested on Wednesday by UP ATS by unearthing a big racket of human trafficking with Rohingya connections. After the incident, once again the hideous game of human trafficking has come into the limelight. Constitutional Provisions in India Trafficking in human or persons is prohibited under Article 23(1) of the Constitution of India · The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) is the main legislation for the prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation. ·
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013 has come into force in which Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code has been replaced by Sections 370 and 370A IPC with comprehensive provisions to counter the menace of human trafficking, including trafficking in physical Exploitation or the sexual exploitation of children in any form, including slavery, servitude, or the forcible removal of organs, includes provisions relating to exploitation. Efforts to combat smuggling In 2000, the Palermo Protocol was brought in, which is an international effort to combat smuggling. However, more efforts are needed by countries to deal with domestic smuggling, especially in terms of creating legal frameworks to prosecute smugglers and care for those rescued from their clutches. Along with political efforts to combat smuggling domestically, the cooperation of local residents and people working in other areas is also required. A big difference has been seen in the matter of making laws in the country and implementing them strictly. That is why in many cases, despite the stringent laws, anti-social elements play their game fearlessly. Therefore, there is a need to develop such a monitoring mechanism along with a continuous monitoring system of stringent legal provisions in the case of human trafficking so that the accused are not released on the strength of their clout.